Cisco Certified Information Systems Interconnect (CIS-based) professionals can acquire the most significant information on the latest CCNA Exam Answers, including all of the material covered in previous chapters. The third chapter takes up an excellent overview of the RIS capabilities offered by Cisco products. It also explains the differences between CCIE and CIS-based products. IS-based exam materials can be acquired from Cisco’s own hardware or third-party vendors, and it is critical to understand how they match functionality.

The third chapter focuses on Cisco Discovery Kit (DKC), a component of the CCNA Exam Answers that enables subscribers to discover a local network. A subscriber requests the discovery of a local network, not a domain name or an IP address. In other words, there is no ‘router’ involved. Instead, the request comes from an interface on the network’s subnet, rather than on a name-based level. The CIS-based system is designed to allow multiple queries against the same server to yield relevant data for authorization purposes.

Another important feature of the third chapter of the CCNA Exam Answers is a discussion of how to obtain a dynamically allocated (A+ certification) port community. Basically, the acquirer is granted port community scope regardless of whether the request matches one of many static port groups. Static ports are mapped onto an IP address using DNS. The acquirer process maps the requested IP address to a Static Socket Address (socket) in the Cisco device. The server then executes the necessary operation to discover the requested host.

IS-based modules are implemented using the software supplied by the Cisco company. The third chapter provides a clear description of how these modules work and goes into great detail concerning how to configure them for use with RIS devices. The third chapter also describes the concept of a merchant gateway and how it differs from the normal router. Finally, it introduces the concept of a point-to-point connection (PPT), as contrasted with the traditional point-to-host method of establishing a connection. In essence, the PPT has the capability of converting an IP packet to an Ethernet frame so that the received frame can be passed on to the processing unit for execution within the network.

The fourth section of the CCNA Exam Answers discusses IS-based and IS-less merchants. It first explains the distinction between these two types of merchants. IS-less merchants are usually small businesses that do not require specialized Cisco equipment or services. They may use edge routers for point-to-point transactions. On the other hand, IS-based merchants are large companies that rent equipment such as Cisco Stingray devices for processing traffic. With IS-less merchants, a company only needs to have a single management system in place for both point-to-point and point-to-host IP traffic.

The fifth section looks at four types of cardholders. They are the master cardholder, authorized user, secured gateway, and unsecured gateway cardholders. Master cardholders are the people who control the Visa Card and are the ones who issue them to customers. Authorized users are those who process the transactions; they are the ones who authorize purchases, enter data during the transaction, or receive payments from the cardholder.

The sixth section looks at different types of financial institutions that use Cisco equipment. It begins by explaining the differences between a merchant account and credit card accounts. Then it goes over the difference between financial institutions and cardholders. It concludes by reviewing the difference between individual cardholders and financial institutions. It also explains that independent third party processors do not belong to financial institutions. Finally, it introduces the concepts of IS-less or IS-equipped merchants, independent third party processors, and independent third party cardholders.

These are the topics that I understood with the exception of the discussion about IS-less or IS-equipped merchants and their role in the payment industry. Cisco’s explanation makes it clear that this is a part of the payment network that is independent from the financial institutions. This means that these merchants make money only if there is a sale. However, one thing is sure – independent cardholders will not have the same revenues as financial institutions.